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Rights Protection Mechanisms (RPMs) & Dispute Resolutions Procedures (DRPs)

The ICANN community developed several rights protection mechanisms and dispute resolutions procedures below to support a trusted marketplace. They were implemented for the New gTLD Program to mitigate potential risks to rights holders that could arise in the expansion of the new gTLD namespace, and to help create efficiencies for registration service providers among gTLD launches.

  • International nongovernmental organizations (INGO) Claims Notification - The names of the INGOs on the INGO Identifier List are provided 90-days claims notifications service per the Protection of IGO and INGO Identifiers In All gTLDs Policy.
  • Public Interest Commitment Dispute Resolution Procedure (PICDRP) - The PICDRP addresses complaints that a registry may not be complying with the Public Interest Commitment(s) in Specification 11 of their Registry Agreement.
  • Registration Restrictions Dispute Resolution Procedure (RRDRP) - RRDRP is intended to address circumstances in which a community-based New gTLD registry operator deviates from the registration restrictions outlined in its Registry Agreement.
  • Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) – The TMCH is a repository for trademark data supporting rights-protection services offered by new gTLD registries. The purpose of the TMCH is to facilitate the sunrise services and trademark claims services.
  • Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) Requirements - The TMCH requirements are the rights protection mechanisms related to the Trademark Clearinghouse specified in Section 1 of Specification 7 to the Registry Agreement between the ICANN organization and registry operator. These trademark protections were developed by the ICANN community for incorporation into the New gTLD Program.
  • Trademark Post-Delegation Dispute Resolution Procedure (PDDRP) - The PDDRP is intended to cover trademark post-delegation dispute resolution proceedings generally, and addresses a registry operator's complicity in trademark infringement on the first or second level of a New gTLD.
  • Uniform Rapid Suspension (URS) - The URS is a rights protection mechanism that complements the existing Uniform Domain-Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) by offering a lower-cost, faster path to relief for rights holders experiencing the most clear-cut cases of infringement.
Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."