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To be a trusted Contractual Compliance service provider.


To preserve the security, stability and resiliency of the Domain Name System and to promote consumer trust.


  • Prevention through collaboration.
  • Transparency through communication.
  • Enforcement.

Contractual Compliance Staff Listing as of July 2024

Yan Agranonik | Senior Manager, Contractual Compliance Risk & Audit

Blessing Akinsilo | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Nick Axelrod-McLeod | Contractual Compliance Senior Specialist

Leticia Castillo | Senior Director, Contractual Compliance

Rómulo Chacin | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Genie Chou | Contractual Compliance Senior Specialist

Jonathan Denison | Senior Director, Contractual Compliance

Susan Eugenia | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Leyla Gambarova | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Jamie Hedlund | Senior Vice President, Contractual Compliance & U.S. Government Engagement

Pamela Howard, MBA, CPA | Senior Manager, Contractual Compliance Performance Measurement & Reporting

May Kim | Contractual Compliance Senior Specialist

Charmaine Lim | Contractual Compliance Senior Specialist

HuiYing Lim | Contractual Compliance Specialist

Roger Lim | Senior Director, Contractual Compliance

Joseph Restuccia | Contractual Compliance Risk & Audit Senior Specialist

Amanda Rose | Senior Registrar Compliance Lead

Mariana Solano | Contractual Compliance Specialist

Bryan Tan | Contractual Compliance Senior Specialist

Joanna Toh | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Brian Villaroman | Contractual Compliance Analyst

Amanda Weddle | Contractual Compliance Specialist

Holida Yanik | Contractual Compliance Lead

Domain Name System
Internationalized Domain Name ,IDN,"IDNs are domain names that include characters used in the local representation of languages that are not written with the twenty-six letters of the basic Latin alphabet ""a-z"". An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese. Many languages also use other types of digits than the European ""0-9"". The basic Latin alphabet together with the European-Arabic digits are, for the purpose of domain names, termed ""ASCII characters"" (ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange). These are also included in the broader range of ""Unicode characters"" that provides the basis for IDNs. The ""hostname rule"" requires that all domain names of the type under consideration here are stored in the DNS using only the ASCII characters listed above, with the one further addition of the hyphen ""-"". The Unicode form of an IDN therefore requires special encoding before it is entered into the DNS. The following terminology is used when distinguishing between these forms: A domain name consists of a series of ""labels"" (separated by ""dots""). The ASCII form of an IDN label is termed an ""A-label"". All operations defined in the DNS protocol use A-labels exclusively. The Unicode form, which a user expects to be displayed, is termed a ""U-label"". The difference may be illustrated with the Hindi word for ""test"" — परीका — appearing here as a U-label would (in the Devanagari script). A special form of ""ASCII compatible encoding"" (abbreviated ACE) is applied to this to produce the corresponding A-label: xn--11b5bs1di. A domain name that only includes ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens is termed an ""LDH label"". Although the definitions of A-labels and LDH-labels overlap, a name consisting exclusively of LDH labels, such as"""" is not an IDN."